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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-Q

(Mark One)

     QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2024

or

         TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from            to

Commission file number: 001-35969

PTC Therapeutics, Inc.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware

    

04-3416587

(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

500 Warren Corporate Center Drive

    

Warren, NJ

07059

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

(908) 222-7000

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Title of each class

    

Trading Symbol(s)

    

Name of each exchange on which registered

Common Stock, $0.001 par value per share

PTCT

Nasdaq Global Select Market

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes þ  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes þ  No 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer

þ

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes   No þ

As of April 23, 2024, there were 76,696,785 shares of Common Stock, $0.001 par value per share, outstanding.

i

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements that involve substantial risks and uncertainties. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, contained in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, including statements regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenues, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management, are forward-looking statements. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “might,” “plan,” “predict,” “project,” “target,” “potential,” “will,” “would,” “could,” “should,” “continue,” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words.

The forward-looking statements in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q include, among other things, statements about:

our ability to negotiate, secure and maintain adequate pricing, coverage and reimbursement terms and processes on a timely basis, or at all, with third-party payors for our products or product candidates that we commercialize or may commercialize in the future;
our expectations with respect to the European Commission’s potential adoption of the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use’s negative opinion for the renewal of the conditional marketing authorization for TranslarnaTM (ataluren) for the treatment of nonsense mutation Duchenne muscular dystrophy, or nmDMD, in the European Economic Area, or EEA, following a re-examination procedure and our ability to maintain such conditional marketing authorization or identify other potential mechanisms in which we may provide Translarna to nmDMD patients in the EEA;
Our ability to maintain our marketing authorizations in other jurisdictions in which Translarna has been approved;
our ability to utilize results from Study 041 and from our international drug registry study to support a marketing approval for Translarna for the treatment of nmDMD in the United States;
expectations with respect to our ability to commercialize UpstazaTM (eladocagene exuparvovec) for the treatment of Aromatic L-Amino Acid Decarboxylase, or AADC deficiency, in the EEA, any potential regulatory submissions and potential approvals for our product candidates, our manufacturing capabilities and the potential financial impact and benefits of our leased biologics manufacturing facility and the potential achievement of development, regulatory and sales milestones and contingent payments that we may be obligated to make;
our expectations with respect to the commercial status of Evrysdi® (risdiplam) and our program directed against spinal muscular atrophy in collaboration with F. Hoffmann La Roche Ltd and Hoffmann La Roche Inc. and the Spinal Muscular Atrophy Foundation and our estimates regarding future revenues from sales-based royalty payments or the achievement of milestones in that program;
our expectations and the potential financial impact and benefits related to our Collaboration and License Agreement with a subsidiary of Ionis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. including with respect to the timing of regulatory approval of Tegsedi® (inotersen) and WaylivraTM (volanesorsen) in countries in which we are licensed to commercialize them, the commercialization of Tegsedi and Waylivra, and our expectations with respect to royalty payments by us based on our potential achievement of certain net sales thresholds;
the timing and scope of our commercialization of our products and product candidates;
our estimates regarding the potential market opportunity for our products or product candidates, including the size of eligible patient populations and our ability to identify such patients;
our ability to obtain additional and maintain existing reimbursed named patient and cohort early access programs for our products on adequate terms, or at all;

1

our estimates regarding expenses, future revenues, third-party discounts and rebates, capital requirements and needs for additional financing, including our ability to maintain the level of our expenses consistent with our internal budgets and forecasts and to secure additional funds on favorable terms or at all;
the timing and conduct of our ongoing, planned and potential future clinical trials and studies for sepiapterin and our splicing and ferroptosis and inflammation programs as well as studies in our products for maintaining authorizations, label extensions and additional indications, including the timing of initiation, enrollment and completion of the trials and the period during which the results of the trials will become available;
our ability to realize the anticipated benefits of our acquisitions or other strategic transactions, including the possibility that the expected impact of benefits from the acquisitions or strategic transactions will not be realized or will not be realized within the expected time period, significant transaction costs, the integration of operations and employees into our business, our ability to obtain marketing approval of our product candidates we acquired from the acquisitions or other strategic transactions and unknown liabilities;
the rate and degree of market acceptance and clinical utility of any of our products or product candidates;
the ability and willingness of patients and healthcare professionals to access our products and product candidates through alternative means if pricing and reimbursement negotiations in the applicable territory do not have a positive outcome;
the timing of, and our ability to obtain additional marketing authorizations for our products and product candidates;
the ability of our products and our product candidates to meet existing or future regulatory standards;
the potential receipt of revenues from future sales of our products or product candidates;
the expected impact of our loss of market exclusivity for Emflaza® (deflazacort) for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy in the United States under the Orphan Drug Act of 1983;
our sales, marketing and distribution capabilities and strategy, including the ability of our third-party manufacturers to manufacture and deliver our products and product candidates in clinically and commercially sufficient quantities and the ability of distributors to process orders in a timely manner and satisfy their other obligations to us;
our ability to establish and maintain arrangements for the manufacture of our products and product candidates that are sufficient to meet clinical trial and commercial launch requirements;
the extent, timing and financial aspects of our strategic pipeline prioritization and reductions in workforce;
our ability to complete any post-marketing requirements imposed by regulatory agencies with respect to our products;
our expectations with respect to the potential financial impact and benefits of our leased biologics manufacturing facility and our ability to satisfy our obligations under the terms of the lease agreement for such facility;
our ability to satisfy our obligations under the indenture governing our 1.50% convertible senior notes due September 15, 2026;
our regulatory submissions, including with respect to timing and outcome of regulatory review;
our plans to advance our earlier stage programs and pursue research and development of other product candidates, including our splicing and ferroptosis and inflammation programs;

2

whether we may pursue business development opportunities, including potential collaborations, alliances, and acquisition or licensing of assets and our ability to successfully develop or commercialize any assets to which we may gain rights pursuant to such business development opportunities;
the potential advantages of our products and any product candidate;
our intellectual property position;
the impact of government laws and regulations;
the impact of litigation that has been or may be brought against us or of litigation that we are pursuing against others; and
our competitive position.

We may not actually achieve the plans, intentions or expectations disclosed in our forward-looking statements, and you should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements. Actual results or events could differ materially from the plans, intentions and expectations disclosed in the forward-looking statements we make. We have included important factors in the cautionary statements included in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, particularly in Part II, Item 1A. Risk Factors as well as in Part I, Item 1A. Risk Factors in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023, that we believe could cause actual results or events to differ materially from the forward-looking statements that we make. Our forward-looking statements do not reflect the potential impact of any future acquisitions, mergers, dispositions, joint ventures or investments we may make.

You should read this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and the documents that we have filed as exhibits to this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2023 completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. We do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by applicable law.

In this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, unless otherwise stated or the context otherwise requires, references to “PTC,” “PTC Therapeutics,” “the Company,” “we,” “us,” “our,” and similar references refer to PTC Therapeutics, Inc. and, where appropriate, its subsidiaries. The trademarks, trade names and service marks appearing in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q are the property of their respective owners.

All website addresses given in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q are for information only and are not intended to be an active link or to incorporate any website information into this document.

3

PART I—FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1. Financial Statements.

PTC Therapeutics, Inc.

Consolidated Balance Sheets (unaudited)

In thousands (except shares)

March 31, 

December 31, 

    

2024

    

2023

Assets

Current assets:

 

 

  

Cash and cash equivalents

$

548,355

$

594,001

Marketable securities

 

336,458

 

282,738

Trade and royalty receivables, net

 

197,660

 

160,822

Inventory, net

 

30,058

 

30,577

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

56,207

 

150,491

Total current assets

 

1,168,738

 

1,218,629

Fixed assets, net

 

92,779

 

87,089

Intangible assets, net

 

330,040

 

379,497

Goodwill

 

82,341

 

82,341

Operating lease ROU assets

91,186

91,896

Deposits and other assets

 

24,545

 

36,246

Total assets

$

1,789,629

$

1,895,698

Liabilities and stockholders’ deficit

 

  

 

  

Current liabilities:

 

  

 

  

Accounts payable and accrued expenses

$

330,924

$

391,983

Deferred revenue

 

 

801

Operating lease liabilities- current

14,572

13,002

Finance lease liabilities- current

1,948

3,000

Liability for sale of future royalties- current

227,102

194,314

Total current liabilities

 

574,546

 

603,100

Long-term debt

 

284,512

 

284,213

Contingent consideration payable

 

36,200

 

36,300

Deferred tax liability

 

55,904

 

55,905

Operating lease liabilities- noncurrent

104,837

97,627

Finance lease liabilities- noncurrent

15,574

17,184

Liability for sale of future royalties- noncurrent

1,611,831

1,619,783

Other long-term liabilities

141

141

Total liabilities

 

2,683,545

 

2,714,253

Stockholders’ deficit:

 

  

 

  

Common stock, $0.001 par value. Authorized 250,000,000 shares; issued and outstanding 76,653,960 shares at March 31, 2024. Authorized 250,000,000 shares; issued and outstanding 75,708,889 shares at December 31, 2023.

 

76

 

75

Additional paid-in capital

 

2,486,722

 

2,466,233

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

 

(5,560)

 

(1,285)

Accumulated deficit

 

(3,375,154)

 

(3,283,578)

Total stockholders’ deficit

 

(893,916)

 

(818,555)

Total liabilities and stockholders’ deficit

$

1,789,629

$

1,895,698

See accompanying unaudited notes.

4

PTC Therapeutics, Inc.

Consolidated Statements of Operations (unaudited)

In thousands (except shares and per share amounts)

Three Months Ended March 31, 

    

2024

    

2023

    

Revenues:

 

  

 

  

Net product revenue

$

177,604

$

187,557

Collaboration revenue

 

6

Royalty revenue

31,154

30,831

Manufacturing revenue

1,360

1,988

Total revenues

 

210,118

 

220,382

Operating expenses:

Cost of product sales, excluding amortization of acquired intangible assets

 

14,740

14,144

Amortization of acquired intangible assets

 

51,530

39,415

Research and development

 

116,129

195,124

Selling, general and administrative

 

73,272

86,914

Change in the fair value of contingent consideration

 

(100)

2,400

Total operating expenses

 

255,571

 

337,997

Loss from operations

 

(45,453)

 

(117,615)

Interest expense, net

 

(40,834)

(27,331)

Other income, net

 

1,591

9,956

Loss before income tax expense

 

(84,696)

 

(134,990)

Income tax expense

 

(6,880)

(3,969)

Net loss attributable to common stockholders

$

(91,576)

$

(138,959)

Weighted-average shares outstanding:

Basic and diluted (in shares)

 

76,496,127

73,729,284

Net loss per share—basic and diluted (in dollars per share)

$

(1.20)

$

(1.88)

See accompanying unaudited notes.

5

PTC Therapeutics, Inc.

Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss (unaudited)

In thousands

Three Months Ended March 31, 

     

2024

     

2023

     

Net loss

$

(91,576)

$

(138,959)

Other comprehensive (loss) income:

 

  

 

  

Unrealized (loss) gain on marketable securities, net of tax

 

(444)

54

Foreign currency translation loss, net of tax

 

(3,831)

(6,437)

Comprehensive loss

$

(95,851)

$

(145,342)

See accompanying unaudited notes.

6

PTC Therapeutics, Inc.

Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Deficit (unaudited)

In thousands (except shares)

 

 

Accumulated

 

 

 

Additional

 

other

 

Total

Three months ended March 31, 2024

Common stock

paid-in

 

comprehensive

Accumulated

stockholders’

    

Shares

    

Amount

    

capital

    

loss

    

deficit

    

deficit

Balance, December 31, 2023

75,708,889

$

75

$

2,466,233

$

(1,285)

$

(3,283,578)

$

(818,555)

Exercise of options

 

109,892

2,030

2,030

Restricted stock vesting and issuance, net

 

835,179

1

1

Share-based compensation expense

 

18,378

18,378

Receivable from investor

81

81

Net loss

 

(91,576)

(91,576)

Comprehensive loss

 

(4,275)

(4,275)

Balance, March 31, 2024

 

76,653,960

$

76

$

2,486,722

$

(5,560)

$

(3,375,154)

$

(893,916)

 

 

Accumulated

 

 

 

Additional

 

other

 

Total

Three months ended March 31, 2023

Common stock

paid-in

 

comprehensive

Accumulated

stockholders’

    

Shares

    

Amount

    

capital

    

income (loss)

    

deficit

    

deficit

Balance, December 31, 2022

 

73,104,692

    

$

72

    

$

2,305,020

    

$

4,796

    

$

(2,656,974)

    

$

(347,086)

Exercise of options

 

211,561

5,655

5,655

Restricted stock vesting and issuance, net

 

695,781

1

1

Share-based compensation expense

 

28,815

28,815

Receivable from investor

 

396

 

396

Net loss

 

(138,959)

 

(138,959)

Comprehensive loss

 

 

 

 

(6,383)

 

(6,383)

Balance, March 31, 2023

 

74,012,034

$

73

$

2,339,886

$

(1,587)

$

(2,795,933)

$

(457,561)

See accompanying unaudited notes.

7

PTC Therapeutics, Inc.

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows (unaudited)

In thousands

Three Months Ended March 31, 

    

2024

    

2023

Cash flows from operating activities

Net loss

$

(91,576)

$

(138,959)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:

 

  

Depreciation and amortization

 

55,395

42,825

Non-cash operating lease expense

 

1,792

2,942

Non-cash royalty revenue related to sale of future royalties

(25,228)

(13,237)

Non-cash interest expense on liability related to sale of future royalties

50,064

18,902

Change in valuation of contingent consideration

 

(100)

2,400

Unrealized (gain) loss on ClearPoint Equity Investments

 

(9)

39

Unrealized gain on ClearPoint convertible debt security

(166)

(59)

Unrealized gain on marketable securities- equity investments

(710)

(2,166)

Disposal of asset

544

Deferred income taxes

(1)

(4)

Amortization of discounts on investments, net

 

(3,697)

(85)

Amortization of debt issuance costs

 

296

438

Share-based compensation expense

 

18,378

28,815

Unrealized foreign currency transaction losses (gains), net

 

269

(10,057)

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

 

Inventory, net

 

120

(4,612)

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

93,904

57,611

Trade and royalty receivables, net

 

(39,500)

(43,426)

Deposits and other assets

 

11,192

743

Accounts payable and accrued expenses

 

(5,389)

33,524

Other liabilities

 

5,984

(3,988)

Deferred revenue

 

(801)

(1,137)

Net cash provided by (used in) operating activities

$

70,761

$

(29,491)

Cash flows from investing activities

 

 

Purchases of fixed assets

$

(9,588)

$

(10,270)

Purchases of marketable securities- available for sale

(104,373)

Purchases of marketable securities- equity investments

(9,065)

Sale and redemption of marketable securities- available for sale

61,650

12,500

Sale and redemption of marketable securities- equity investments

1,207

2,196

Acquisition of product rights and licenses

(54,763)

(33,397)

Net cash used in investing activities

$

(114,932)

$

(28,971)

Cash flows from financing activities

 

 

Proceeds from exercise of options

$

2,030

$

5,655

Debt issuance costs related to secured loan

(182)

Payment of finance lease principal

(1,490)

(1,379)

Net cash provided by financing activities

$

540

$

4,094

Effect of exchange rate changes on cash

 

(2,030)

(7,963)

Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents

 

(45,661)

 

(62,331)

Cash and cash equivalents, and restricted cash beginning of period

 

610,284

295,925

Cash and cash equivalents, and restricted cash end of period

$

564,623

$

233,594

Supplemental disclosure of cash information

 

 

Cash paid for interest

$

3,666

$

12,956

Cash paid for income taxes

2,042

2,215

Supplemental disclosure of non-cash investing and financing activity

 

 

  

Unrealized (loss) gain on marketable securities, net of tax

$

(444)

$

54

Right-of-use assets obtained in exchange for operating lease obligations

1,723

Acquisition of product rights and licenses

2,296

19,406

Milestone payable

2,500

32,500

Debt issuance costs related to senior secured term loan

45

Capital expenditures unpaid at the end of the period

28

See accompanying unaudited notes.

8

PTC Therapeutics, Inc.

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements (unaudited)

March 31, 2024

In thousands (except share and per share amounts unless otherwise noted)

1.        The Company

PTC Therapeutics, Inc. (the “Company” or “PTC”) is a global biopharmaceutical company focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of clinically differentiated medicines that provide benefits to patients with rare disorders. PTC’s ability to innovate to identify new therapies and to globally commercialize products is the foundation that drives investment in a robust and diversified pipeline of transformative medicines. PTC’s mission is to provide access to best-in-class treatments for patients who have little to no treatment options. PTC’s strategy is to leverage its strong scientific and clinical expertise and global commercial infrastructure to bring therapies to patients.  PTC believes that this allows it to maximize value for all of its stakeholders. PTC has a diversified therapeutic portfolio pipeline that includes several commercial products and product candidates in various stages of development, including clinical, pre-clinical and research and discovery stages, focused on the development of new treatments for multiple therapeutic areas for rare diseases relating to neurology and metabolism.

The Company has two products, Translarna™ (ataluren) and Emflaza® (deflazacort), for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (“DMD”), a rare, life threatening disorder. Translarna has marketing authorization in the European Economic Area (the “EEA”) for the treatment of nonsense mutation Duchenne muscular dystrophy (“nmDMD”) in ambulatory patients aged 2 years and older. Translarna also has marketing authorization in Russia for the treatment of nmDMD in patients aged two years and older and in Brazil for the treatment of nmDMD in ambulatory patients two years and older and for continued treatment of patients that become non-ambulatory, as well as in various other countries. Emflaza is approved in the United States for the treatment of DMD in patients two years and older.

The Company’s marketing authorization for Translarna in the EEA is subject to annual review and renewal by the European Commission (“EC”) following reassessment by the European Medicines Agency (“EMA”) of the benefit-risk balance of the authorization, which the Company refers to as the annual EMA reassessment. In September 2022, the Company submitted a Type II variation to the EMA to support conversion of the conditional marketing authorization for Translarna to a standard marketing authorization, which included a report on the placebo-controlled trial of Study 041 and data from the open-label extension. In February 2023, the Company also submitted an annual marketing authorization renewal request to the EMA. In September 2023, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (“CHMP”), gave a negative opinion on the conversion of the conditional marketing authorization to full marketing authorization of Translarna for the treatment of nmDMD and a negative opinion on the renewal of the existing conditional marketing authorization of Translarna for the treatment of nmDMD. On January 25, 2024, the CHMP issued a negative opinion for the renewal of the conditional marketing authorization following a re-examination procedure. In accordance with EMA regulations, the EC has approximately 67 days to adopt the opinion. At this time, the EC has not yet adopted the negative opinion. If the EC adopts the negative opinion, Translarna would no longer have marketing authorization in the member states of the EEA.

Translarna is an investigational new drug in the United States. Following the Company’s announcement of top-line results from the placebo-controlled trial of Study 041 in June 2022, the Company submitted a meeting request to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) to gain clarity on the regulatory pathway for a potential re-submission of a New Drug Application (“NDA”) for Translarna. The FDA provided initial written feedback that Study 041 does not provide substantial evidence of effectiveness to support an NDA re-submission. The Company held a Type C meeting with the FDA in the fourth quarter of 2023 to discuss the totality of Translarna data. Based on feedback from the FDA, the Company plans to re-submit the NDA based on results from Study 041 and from the Company’s international drug registry study for nmDMD patients receiving Translarna by mid-year 2024.

The Company has developed Upstaza (eladocagene exuparvovec), a gene therapy used for the treatment of Aromatic L-Amino Acid Decarboxylase (“AADC”) deficiency (“AADC deficiency”), a rare central nervous system (“CNS”) disorder arising from reductions in the enzyme AADC that results from mutations in the dopa decarboxylase gene. In July 2022,

9

the EC approved Upstaza for the treatment of AADC deficiency for patients 18 months and older within the EEA. In November 2022, the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency approved Upstaza for the treatment of AADC deficiency for patients 18 months and older within the United Kingdom. In March 2024, the Company submitted a biologics license application (“BLA”) for Upstaza for the treatment of AADC deficiency in the United States.

The Company holds the rights for the commercialization of Tegsedi® (inotersen) and Waylivra® (volanesorsen) for the treatment of rare diseases in countries in Latin America and the Caribbean pursuant to the Collaboration and License Agreement (the “Tegsedi-Waylivra Agreement”), dated August 1, 2018, by and between the Company and Akcea Therapeutics, Inc. (“Akcea”), a subsidiary of Ionis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Tegsedi has received marketing authorization in the United States, the European Union (the “EU”) and Brazil for the treatment of stage 1 or stage 2 polyneuropathy in adult patients with hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis (“hATTR amyloidosis”). In August 2021, ANVISA, the Brazilian health regulatory authority, approved Waylivra as the first treatment for familial chylomicronemia syndrome (“FCS”) in Brazil. In December 2022, ANVISA approved Waylivra for the treatment of familial partial lipodystrophy (“FPL”). Waylivra has also received marketing authorization in the EU for the treatment of FCS.

The Company also has a spinal muscular atrophy (“SMA”) collaboration with F. Hoffman-La Roche Ltd and Hoffman-La Roche Inc. (referred to collectively as “Roche”) and the Spinal Muscular Atrophy Foundation (“SMA Foundation”). The SMA program has one approved product, Evrysdi® (risdiplam), which was approved by the FDA in August 2020 for the treatment of SMA in adults and children two months and older and by the EC in March 2021 for the treatment of 5q SMA in patients two months and older with a clinical diagnosis of SMA Type 1, Type 2 or Type 3 or with one to four SMN2 copies. Evrysdi has also received marketing authorization for the treatment of SMA in over 100 countries. In May 2022, the FDA approved a label expansion for Evrysdi to include infants under two months old with SMA. In August 2023, the EC approved an extension of the Evrysdi marketing authorization to include infants under two months old in the EU.

One of the Company’s most advanced clinical stage molecules is sepiapterin. Sepiapterin is a precursor to intracellular tetrahydrobiopterin, which is a critical enzymatic cofactor involved in metabolism and synthesis of numerous metabolic products. In May 2023, the Company announced that the primary endpoint was achieved in its registration-directed Phase 3 trial for sepiapterin for phenylketonuria (“PKU”). The primary endpoint of the study was the achievement of statistically-significant reduction in blood Phe level. In March 2024, the Company submitted a marketing authorization application (“MAA”) to the EMA for sepiapterin for the treatment of PKU in the EEA. Additionally, the Company participated in a pre-NDA meeting with the FDA in the third quarter of 2023. At that meeting, the FDA stated that the sepiapterin clinical safety and efficacy data supported NDA submission for the treatment of pediatric and adult PKU patients. However, the FDA has requested that PTC completes a 26-week nonclinical mouse study to assess sepiapterin carcinogenicity potential prior to NDA submission. Based on the timing to complete this study, PTC expects to submit an NDA to the FDA for sepiapterin for the treatment of PKU no later than the third quarter of 2024 and PTC intends to discuss with the FDA the potential for an earlier submission if PTC is permitted to submit the 26-week mouse study report during the NDA review. PTC also expects to make regulatory submissions for sepiapterin for the treatment of PKU in Japan and Brazil in 2024.

In addition to the Company’s SMA program, the Company’s splicing platform also includes PTC518, which is being developed for the treatment of Huntington’s disease (“HD”). The Company initiated a Phase 2 study of PTC518 for the treatment of HD in the first quarter of 2022, which consists of an initial 12-week placebo-controlled phase focused on safety, pharmacology and pharmacodynamic effects followed by a nine-month placebo-controlled phase focused on PTC518 biomarker effect. In June 2023, the Company announced interim data from the 12-week placebo-controlled phase. The Phase 2 study is actively ongoing outside the United States, while it has been paused within the United States as the FDA requested additional data to allow the Phase 2 study to proceed. The Company expects results from the 12-month interim data from the Phase 2 study of PTC518 for the treatment of HD in the second quarter of 2024. The Company expects to submit a safety data update to the FDA in the second quarter of 2024 to support lifting of the partial clinical hold on the program.

The Company’s ferroptosis and inflammation platform consists of small molecule compounds that target oxidoreductase enzymes that regulate oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways central to the pathology of a number of CNS diseases. The two most advanced molecules in the Company’s ferroptosis and inflammation platform are vatiquinone and utreloxastat. The Company announced topline results from a registration-directed Phase 3 trial of vatiquinone in children and young adults with Friedreich ataxia, called MOVE-FA, in May 2023. While the study did not meet its primary

10

endpoint, vatiquinone treatment did demonstrate significant benefit on key disease subscales, including the upright stability subscale, as well as on other disease relevant endpoints. In the first quarter of 2024, the Company met with the FDA, who expressed willingness to review an NDA for vatiquinone for the treatment of Friedreich ataxia based on the MOVE-FA trial as well as data from the ongoing open label extension study following the MOVE-FA trial, potentially allowing for the submission of an NDA in late 2024. In the first quarter of 2024, the Company also received scientific advice from the EMA on the MOVE-FA trial results, in which the EMA stated that the MOVE-FA data would likely not be sufficient for conditional authorization. The Company initiated a Phase 2 registration directed trial of utreloxastat for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS, in the first quarter of 2022. The Company expects topline results from this trial in the fourth quarter of 2024.

In addition, the Company has a pipeline of product candidates and discovery programs that are in early clinical, pre-clinical and research and development stages focused on the development of new treatments for multiple therapeutic areas for rare diseases.

As of March 31, 2024, the Company had an accumulated deficit of approximately $3,375.2 million. The Company has financed its operations to date primarily through the private offerings of convertible senior notes (see Note 9), public and “at the market offerings” of common stock, proceeds from royalty purchase agreements (see Note 2), net proceeds from the Company’s’ borrowings under its credit agreement with Blackstone (see Note 9), private placements of its convertible preferred stock and common stock, collaborations, bank and institutional lender debt, other convertible debt, grant funding and clinical trial support from governmental and philanthropic organizations and patient advocacy groups in the disease area addressed by the Company’s product candidates. The Company has also relied on revenue generated from net sales of Translarna for the treatment of nmDMD in territories outside of the United States since 2014, Emflaza for the treatment of DMD in the United States since 2017, and Upstaza for the treatment of AADC deficiency in the EEA since May 2022. The Company has also relied on revenue associated with milestone and royalty payments from Roche pursuant to the License and Collaboration Agreement (the “SMA License Agreement”) dated as of November 23, 2011, by and among the Company, Roche and, for the limited purposes set forth therein, the SMA Foundation, under its SMA program. The Company expects that cash flows from the sales of its products, milestone and royalty payments from Roche, together with the Company’s cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities, will be sufficient to fund its operations for at least the next twelve months.

 

2.        Summary of significant accounting policies

The Company’s complete listing of significant accounting policies is set forth in Note 2 of the notes to the Company’s audited financial statements as of December 31, 2023 included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the "SEC") on February 29, 2024 (the "2023 Form 10-K"). Selected significant accounting policies are discussed in further detail below.

Basis of presentation

The accompanying financial information as of March 31, 2024 and for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 has been prepared by the Company, without audit, pursuant to the rules and regulations of the SEC. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in financial statements prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States ("GAAP") have been condensed or omitted pursuant to such rules and regulations. These interim financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited financial statements as of December 31, 2023 and notes thereto included in the 2023 Form 10-K.

In the opinion of management, the unaudited financial information as of March 31, 2024 and for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023 reflects all adjustments, which are normal recurring adjustments, necessary to present a fair statement of financial position, results of operations, stockholders’ (deficit) equity, and cash flows. The results of operations for the three months ended March 31, 2024 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the year ended December 31, 2024 or for any other interim period or for any other future year.

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Use of estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Significant estimates in these consolidated financial statements have been made in connection with the calculation of net product sales, royalty revenue, certain accruals related to the Company’s research and development expenses, valuation procedures for liability for sale of future royalties, fair value of the contingent consideration, and the provision for or benefit from income taxes. Actual results could differ from those estimates. Changes in estimates are reflected in reported results in the period in which they become known.

Restricted cash

Restricted cash included in deposits and other assets on the consolidated balance sheet contains an unconditional, irrevocable and transferable letter of credit that was entered into during the twelve-month period ended December 31, 2019 in connection with obligations under a facility lease for the Company’s leased biologics manufacturing facility in Hopewell Township, New Jersey. The amount of the letter of credit is $7.5 million, is to be maintained for a term of not less than five years and has the potential to be reduced to $3.8 million if after five years the Company is not in default of its lease. Restricted cash also contains an unconditional, irrevocable and transferable letter of credit that was entered into during June 2022 in connection with obligations for the Company’s new facility lease in Warren, New Jersey. The amount of the letter of credit is $8.1 million and has the potential to be reduced to $4.1 million if after five years the Company is not in default of its lease. Both amounts are classified within deposits and other assets on the consolidated balance sheet due to the long-term nature of the respective letters of credit. Restricted cash also includes a bank guarantee of $0.6 million denominated in a foreign currency.

The following table provides a reconciliation of cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash reported within the consolidated balance sheet that sum to the total of the same amounts shown in the statement of cash flows:

    

End of

    

Beginning of

 

period-

 

period-

 

March 31, 

 

December 31, 

 

2024

2023

Cash and cash equivalents

$

548,355

$

594,001

Restricted cash included in deposits and other assets

 

16,268

 

16,283

Total Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash per statement of cash flows

$

564,623

$

610,284

Marketable securities

The Company’s marketable securities consists of both debt securities and equity investments. The Company considers its investments in debt securities with original maturities of greater than 90 days to be available for sale securities. Securities under this classification are recorded at fair value and unrealized gains and losses within accumulated other comprehensive income. The estimated fair value of the available for sale securities is determined based on quoted market prices or rates for similar instruments. In addition, the cost of debt securities in this category is adjusted for amortization of premium and accretion of discount to maturity. For available for sale debt securities in an unrealized loss position, the Company assesses whether it intends to sell or if it is more likely than not that the Company will be required to sell the security before recovery of its amortized cost basis. If either of the criteria regarding intent or requirement to sell is met, the security’s amortized cost basis is written down to fair value. If the criteria are not met, the Company evaluates whether the decline in fair value has resulted from a credit loss or other factors. In making this assessment, management considers, among other factors, the extent to which fair value is less than amortized cost, any changes to the rating of the security by a rating agency, and adverse conditions specifically related to the security. If this assessment indicates that a credit loss exists, the present value of cash flows expected to be collected from the security are compared to the amortized cost basis of the security. If the present value of the cash flows expected to be collected is less than the amortized cost basis, a credit loss exists and an allowance for credit losses is recorded for the credit loss, limited by the amount that the fair value is less than the amortized costs basis. Any impairment that has not been recorded through an allowance for credit losses is recognized in other comprehensive income. For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, no allowance was recorded for credit losses.

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Marketable securities that are equity investments are measured at fair value, as it is readily available, and as such are classified as Level 1 assets. Unrealized holding gains and losses for these equity investments are components of other income (expense), net within the consolidated statement of operations.

Inventory and cost of product sales

Inventory

Inventories are stated at the lower of cost and net realizable value with cost determined on a first-in, first-out basis by product. The Company capitalizes inventory costs associated with products following regulatory approval when future commercialization is considered probable and the future economic benefit is expected to be realized. Products which may be used in clinical development programs are included in inventory and charged to research and development expense when the product enters the research and development process and no longer can be used for commercial purposes. Inventory used for marketing efforts are charged to selling, general and administrative expense. Amounts related to clinical development programs and marketing efforts are immaterial.

The following table summarizes the components of the Company’s inventory for the periods indicated:

    

March 31, 2024

    

December 31, 2023

Raw materials

$

1,121

$

952

Work in progress

 

22,178

 

17,991

Finished goods

 

6,759

 

11,634

Total inventory

$

30,058

$

30,577

The Company periodically reviews its inventories for excess amounts or obsolescence and writes down obsolete or otherwise unmarketable inventory to its estimated net realizable value. For the three months ended March 31, 2024, the Company recorded inventory write-downs of $3.7 million primarily related to adjustments to inventory reserves and product approaching expiration. For the three months ended March 31, 2023, the Company recorded inventory write-downs of $0.1 million primarily related to product approaching expiration. Additionally, though the Company’s product is subject to strict quality control and monitoring which it performs throughout the manufacturing processes, certain batches or units of product may not meet quality specifications resulting in a charge to cost of product sales. For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, these amounts were immaterial.

Cost of product sales

Cost of product sales consists of the cost of inventory sold, manufacturing and supply chain costs, storage costs, amortization of the acquired intangible asset, royalty payments associated with net product sales, and royalty payments to collaborative partners associated with royalty revenues and collaboration revenue related to milestones. Production costs are expensed as cost of product sales when the related products are sold or royalty revenues and collaboration revenue milestones are earned.

Revenue recognition

Net product revenue

The Company’s net product revenue primarily consists of sales of Translarna in territories outside of the U.S. for the treatment of nmDMD and sales of Emflaza in the U.S. for the treatment of DMD. The Company recognizes revenue when its performance obligations with its customers have been satisfied. The Company’s performance obligations are to provide products based on customer orders from distributors, hospitals, specialty pharmacies or retail pharmacies. The performance obligations are satisfied at a point in time when the Company’s customer obtains control of the product, which is typically upon delivery. The Company invoices its customers after the products have been delivered and invoice payments are generally due within 30 to 90 days of the invoice date. The Company determines the transaction price based on fixed consideration in its contractual agreements. Contract liabilities arise in certain circumstances when consideration is due for goods the Company has yet to provide. As the Company has identified only one distinct performance obligation, the

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transaction price is allocated entirely to product sales. In determining the transaction price, a significant financing component does not exist since the timing from when the Company delivers product to when the customers pay for the product is typically less than one year. Customers in certain countries pay in advance of product delivery. In those instances, payment and delivery typically occur in the same month.

The Company records product sales net of any variable consideration, which includes discounts, allowances, rebates related to Medicaid and other government pricing programs, and distribution fees. The Company uses the expected value or most likely amount method when estimating its variable consideration, unless discount or rebate terms are specified within contracts. The identified variable consideration is recorded as a reduction of revenue at the time revenues from product sales are recognized. These estimates for variable consideration are adjusted to reflect known changes in factors and may impact such estimates in the quarter those changes are known. Revenue recognized does not include amounts of variable consideration that are constrained.

For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, net product sales outside of the United States were $120.1 million and $133.0 million, respectively, consisting of sales of Translarna, Tegsedi, Waylivra, and Upstaza. Translarna net revenues made up $103.6 million and $115.1 million of the net product sales outside of the United States for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively. For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, net product sales in the United States were $57.5 million and $54.6 million, respectively, consisting solely of sales of Emflaza. During the three months ended March 31, 2024, two countries, the United States and Russia, accounted for at least 10% of the Company’s net product sales, representing $57.5 million and $52.6 million of net product sales, respectively. During the three months ended March 31, 2023, three countries, the United States, Russia, and Brazil, accounted for at least 10% of the Company’s net product sales, representing $54.6 million, $44.6 million, and $25.9 million of net product sales, respectively.

In relation to customer contracts, the Company incurs costs to fulfill a contract but does not incur costs to obtain a contract. These costs to fulfill a contract do not meet the criteria for capitalization and are expensed as incurred. The Company considers any shipping and handling costs that are incurred after the customer has obtained control of the product as a cost to fulfill a promise. Shipping and handling costs associated with finished goods delivered to customers are recorded as a selling expense.

Collaboration and royalty revenue

The terms of these agreements typically include payments to the Company of one or more of the following: nonrefundable, upfront license fees; milestone payments; research funding and royalties on future product sales. In addition, the Company generates service revenue through agreements that generally provide for fees for research and development services and may include additional payments upon achievement of specified events.

At the inception of a collaboration arrangement, the Company needs to first evaluate if the arrangement meets the criteria in Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 808 “Collaborative Arrangements” to then determine if ASC Topic 606 is applicable by considering whether the collaborator meets the definition of a customer. If the criteria are met, the Company assesses the promises in the arrangement to identify distinct performance obligations.

For licenses of intellectual property, the Company assesses, at contract inception, whether the intellectual property is distinct from other performance obligations identified in the arrangement. If the licensing of intellectual property is determined to be distinct, revenue is recognized for nonrefundable, upfront license fees when the license is transferred to the customer and the customer can use and benefit from the license. If the licensing of intellectual property is determined not to be distinct, then the license will be bundled with other promises in the arrangement into one distinct performance obligation. The Company needs to determine if the bundled performance obligation is satisfied over time or at a point in time. If the Company concludes that the nonrefundable, upfront license fees will be recognized over time, the Company will need to assess the appropriate method of measuring proportional performance.

For milestone payments, the Company assesses, at contract inception, whether the development or sales-based milestones are considered probable of being achieved. If it is probable that a significant revenue reversal will occur, the Company

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will not record revenue until the uncertainty has been resolved. Milestone payments that are contingent upon regulatory approval are not considered probable of being achieved until the applicable regulatory approvals or other external conditions are obtained as such conditions are not within the Company’s control. If it is probable that a significant revenue reversal will not occur, the Company will estimate the milestone payments using the most likely amount method. The Company will re-assess the development and sales-based milestones each reporting period to determine the probability of achievement. The Company recognizes royalties from product sales at the later of when the related sales occur or when the performance obligation to which the royalty has been allocated has been satisfied. If it is probable that a significant revenue reversal will not occur, the Company will estimate the royalty payments using the most likely amount method.

The Company recognizes revenue for reimbursements of research and development costs under collaboration agreements as the services are performed. The Company records these reimbursements as revenue and not as a reduction of research and development expenses as the Company has the risks and rewards as the principal in the research and development activities.

For the three months ended March 31, 2024, the Company did not recognize collaboration revenue related to the SMA License Agreement with Roche. For the three months ended March 31, 2023, the amounts recognized for the collaboration revenue related to the SMA License Agreement with Roche were immaterial.

For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, the Company has recognized $31.2 million and $30.8 million of royalty revenue, respectively, related to Evrysdi.

Manufacturing Revenue

The Company has manufacturing services related to the production of plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid (“DNA”) and adeno-associated virus (“AAV”) vectors for gene therapy applications for external customers. Performance obligations vary but may include manufacturing plasmid DNA and/or AAV vectors, material testing, stability studies, and other services related to material development. The transaction prices for these arrangements are fixed and include amounts stated in the contracts for each promised service. Typically, the performance obligations within a manufacturing contract are highly interdependent, in which case, the Company will combine them into a single performance obligation. The Company has determined that the assets created have no alternative use to the Company, and the Company has an enforceable right to payment for the performance completed to date, therefore revenue related to these services are recognized over time and is measured using an output method based on performance of manufacturing milestones completed to date.

Manufacturing service contracts may also include performance obligations related to project management services or obtaining materials from third parties. The Company has determined that these are separate performance obligations for which revenue is recognized at the point in time the services are performed. For performance obligations related to obtaining third party materials, the Company has determined that it is the principal as the Company has control of the materials and has discretion in setting the price. Therefore, the Company recognizes revenue on a gross basis related to obtaining third party materials.

Certain arrangements require a portion of the contract consideration to be received in advance at the commencement of the contract, and such advance payment is initially recorded as a contract liability. A contract asset may be recognized in the event the Company’s satisfaction of performance obligations outpaces customer billings.

For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, the Company recognized $1.4 million and $2.0 million of manufacturing revenue, respectively, related to plasmid DNA and AAV vector production for external customers. As of March 31, 2024, the Company has contract assets of $0.8 million and no remaining performance obligations related to the production of plasmid DNA and AAV vectors for gene therapy applications for external customers. For the period ended December 31, 2023, the Company had contract assets of $0.2 million and remaining performance obligations of $0.8 million related to the production of plasmid DNA and AAV vectors for gene therapy applications for external customers.

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Allowance for doubtful accounts

The Company maintains an allowance for estimated losses resulting from the inability of its customers to make required payments. The Company estimates uncollectible amounts based upon current customer receivable balances, the age of customer receivable balances, the customer’s financial condition and current economic trends. The Company also assesses whether an allowance for expected credit losses may be required which includes a review of the Company’s receivables portfolio, which are pooled on a customer basis or country basis.  In making its assessment of whether an allowance for credit losses is required, the Company considers its historical experience with customers, current balances, levels of delinquency, regulatory and legal environments, and other relevant current and future forecasted economic conditions. For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, no allowance was recorded for credit losses. The allowance for doubtful accounts was $1.1 million as of March 31, 2024, and $1.2 million as of December 31, 2023. For the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, bad debt expense was immaterial.

Liability for sale of future royalties

On July 17, 2020, the Company, RPI Intermediate Finance Trust (“RPI”), and, for the limited purposes set forth in the agreement, Royalty Pharma PLC, entered into a royalty purchase agreement (the “Original Royalty Purchase Agreement”). Pursuant to the Original Royalty Purchase Agreement, the Company sold to RPI 42.933% (the “ Original Assigned Royalty Rights”) of the Company’s right to receive sales-based royalty payments (the “Royalty”) on worldwide net sales of Evrysdi and any other product developed pursuant to the License and Collaboration Agreement (the “License Agreement”), dated as of November 23, 2011, by and among the Company, Roche and, for the limited purposes set forth therein, the SMA Foundation under the SMA program. In consideration for the sale of the Original Assigned Royalty Rights, RPI paid the Company $650.0 million in cash consideration. The Company has retained a 57.067% interest in the Royalty and all economic rights to receive the remaining potential regulatory and sales milestone payments under the License Agreement, which remaining milestone payments equal $150.0 million in the aggregate as of March 31, 2024. The Original Royalty Purchase Agreement was set to terminate 60 days following the earlier of the date on which Roche is no longer obligated to make any payments of the Royalty pursuant to the License Agreement and the date on which RPI has received $1.3 billion in respect of the Original Assigned Royalty Rights.

Pursuant to the guidance in ASC 470-10-25-2, the Company determined that the $650.0 million cash consideration obtained pursuant to the Original Royalty Purchase Agreement should be classified as debt and recorded it as “liability for sale of future royalties-current” and “liability for sale of future royalties-noncurrent” on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet based on the timing of the expected payments to be made to RPI at the time of the transaction. The liability was subsequently amortized using the effective interest method over the life of the arrangement, in accordance with the respective guidance, utilizing the prospective method to account for subsequent changes in the estimated future payments to be made to RPI.

On October 18, 2023, the Company, Royalty Pharma Investments 2019 ICAV (“Royalty Pharma”), and, for the limited purposes set forth in the agreement, Royalty Pharma plc, entered into an Amended and Restated Royalty Purchase Agreement (the “A&R Royalty Purchase Agreement”), which amends and restates in its entirety the Original Royalty Purchase Agreement.  Pursuant to the A&R Royalty Purchase Agreement, the Company has sold or agreed to sell to Royalty Pharma certain portions of the Company’s remaining Royalty on worldwide net sales of Evrysdi and any other product (the “Products”) developed pursuant to the SMA License Agreement (all such retained Royalty rights of the Company, the “Retained Royalty Rights,” and all such Royalty rights that are sold to Royalty Pharma pursuant to the A&R Royalty Purchase Agreement, the (“A&R Assigned Royalty Rights”). At closing, Royalty Pharma paid the Company $1.0 billion in cash consideration for 38.0447% of the Company’s Retained Royalty Rights (which is in addition to the 42.9330% assigned to Royalty Pharma in connection with the Original Royalty Purchase Agreement, for a total of 80.9777% of the total Royalty) until such time as Royalty Pharma has received payments in respect of the Original Assigned Royalty Rights equal to $1.3 billion in the aggregate, and thereafter 66.6667% of the total Royalty. In addition, the Company may sell to Royalty Pharma the remainder of the Company’s Retained Royalty Rights in exchange for an aggregate of $500.0 million in additional cash consideration after the closing of the A&R Royalty Purchase Agreement, less royalties received in respect of the Retained Royalty Rights put to Royalty Pharma, which will be payable by Royalty Pharma pursuant to five put options held by the Company that are exercisable at the Company’s option between January 1, 2024 and December 31, 2025. If the Company exercises two or fewer of the put options, Royalty Pharma may exercise

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a call option during the period from and after January 1, 2026 until and including March 31, 2026 for up to 50% of the remainder of the Company’s Retained Royalty Rights less amounts exercised by the Company via its put options at a purchase price that is proportional to the purchase price of the Company’s unexercised put options. Royalty Pharma’s exercise of the call option would result in Royalty Pharma owning 90.4888% of the total Royalty until such time as Royalty Pharma has received payments in respect of the Original Assigned Royalty Rights equal to $1.3 billion in the aggregate, and thereafter 83.3333% of the total Royalty. The A&R Royalty Purchase Agreement will terminate 60 days following the date on which Roche is no longer obligated to make any payments of the Royalty pursuant to the License Agreement.

The change in rights and obligations from the A&R Royalty Purchase Agreement resulted in a change in the terms of the liability for sale of future royalties, which was evaluated by the Company in accordance with ASC 470-50, Debt —Modifications and Extinguishments. The Company determined that the present value of the cash flows under the A&R Royalty Purchase Agreement were substantially different from the present value of the cash flows under the Original Royalty Purchase Agreement. This resulted in the derecognition of the old liability for sale of future royalties and the new liability for sale of future royalties being recorded at fair value, which was determined to be $1,809.9 million as of the date of the A&R Royalty Purchase Agreement. This resulted in an extinguishment loss of $44.9 million, which was recorded within loss on extinguishment of debt, within the Company’s statement of operations for the year ended December 31, 2023.

The fair value for the new liability for sale of future royalties on the date of the A&R Royalty Purchase Agreement was based on the Company’s estimates of future royalties expected to be paid to Royalty Pharma over the life of the arrangement, which was determined using forecasts from market data sources, which are considered Level 3 inputs. The liability is being amortized using the effective interest method over the life of the arrangement, in accordance with ASC 470 and ASC 835. The initial annual effective interest rate was determined to be 10.8%. The Company utilizes the prospective method to account for subsequent changes in the estimated future payments to be made to Royalty Pharma and updates the effective interest rate on a quarterly basis. Issuance costs related to the transaction were determined to be immaterial. Refer to Note 9 for further details.

Indefinite-lived intangible assets

Indefinite-lived intangible assets consist of in process research and development ("IPR&D"). IPR&D acquired directly in a transaction other than a business combination is capitalized if the projects will be further developed or have an alternative future use; otherwise they are expensed. The fair values of IPR&D projects and license agreement assets acquired in business combinations are capitalized. Several methods may be used to determine the estimated fair value of the IPR&D and license agreement asset acquired in a business combination. The Company utilizes the "income method" and uses estimated future net cash flows that are derived from projected sales revenues and estimated costs. These projections are based on factors such as relevant market size, patent protection, and expected pricing and industry trends. The estimated future net cash flows are then discounted to the present value using an appropriate discount rate. These assets are treated as indefinite-lived intangible assets until completion or abandonment of the projects, at which time the assets are amortized over the remaining useful life or written off, as appropriate. Intangible assets with indefinite lives, including IPR&D, are tested for impairment if impairment indicators arise and, at a minimum, annually. However, an entity is permitted to first assess qualitative factors to determine if a quantitative impairment test is necessary. Further testing is only required if the entity determines, based on the qualitative assessment, that it is more likely than not that an indefinite-lived intangible asset’s fair value is less than its carrying amount. Otherwise, no further impairment testing is required. The indefinite-lived intangible asset impairment test consists of a one-step analysis that compares the fair value of the intangible asset with its carrying amount. If the carrying amount of an intangible asset exceeds its fair value, an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to that excess. The Company considers many factors in evaluating whether the value of its intangible assets with indefinite lives may not be recoverable, including, but not limited to, expected growth rates, the cost of equity and debt capital, general economic conditions, the Company’s outlook and market performance of the Company’s industry and recent and forecasted financial performance.

Goodwill

Goodwill represents the amount of consideration paid in excess of the fair value of net assets acquired as a result of the Company’s business acquisitions accounted for using the acquisition method of accounting. Goodwill is not amortized

17

and is subject to impairment testing at a reporting unit level on an annual basis or when a triggering event occurs that may indicate the carrying value of the goodwill is impaired. The Company reassesses its reporting units as part of its annual segment review. An entity is permitted to first assess qualitative factors to determine if a quantitative impairment test is necessary. Further testing is only required if the entity determines, based on the qualitative assessment, that it is more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying amount.

Income Taxes

On December 15, 2022, the EU Member States formally adopted the EU’s Pillar Two Directive, which generally provides for a minimum effective tax rate of 15%, as established by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (“OECD”) Pillar Two Framework that was supported by over 130 countries worldwide. The EU effective dates are January 1, 2024, and January 1, 2025, for different aspects of the directive. A significant number of other countries are also implementing similar legislation. As a result, the tax laws in the U.S. and other countries in which PTC and its affiliates do business could change on a prospective or retroactive basis and any such changes could materially adversely affect the Company’s business. The Company is continuing to evaluate the potential impact on future periods of the Pillar Two Framework, pending legislative adoption by additional individual countries, including those within the European Union.

On December 22, 2017, the U.S. government enacted the 2017 Tax Act, which significantly revised U.S. tax law by, among other provisions, lowering the U.S. federal statutory corporate income tax rate to 21%, imposing a mandatory one-time transition tax on previously deferred foreign earnings, and eliminating or reducing certain income tax deductions. The Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income (“GILTI”) provisions of the 2017 Tax Act require the Company to include in its U.S. income tax return foreign subsidiary earnings in excess of an allowable return on the foreign subsidiary’s tangible assets. The Company has elected to account for GILTI tax in the period in which it is incurred, and therefore has not provided any deferred tax impacts of GILTI in its consolidated financial statements for the period ended March 31, 2024.

Starting in 2022, TCJA amendments to IRC Section 174 no longer permits an immediate deduction for research and development expenditures in the tax year that such costs are incurred. Instead, these IRC Section 174 development costs must now be capitalized and amortized over either a five- or 15-year period, depending on the location of the activities performed. The new amortization period begins with the midpoint of any taxable year that IRC Section 174 costs are first incurred, regardless of whether the expenditures were made prior to or after July 1, and runs until the midpoint of year five for activities conducted in the United States or year 15 in the case of development conducted on foreign soil. This tax law change is anticipated to result in an increased current taxable income of the Company by $42.6 million for the year ending December 31, 2024.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases and net operating loss and credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured at rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences and carryforwards are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in the statement of operations in the period that includes the enactment date. A valuation allowance is recorded when it is not more likely than not that all or a portion of the net deferred tax assets will be realized.

On August 23, 2018, the Company completed its acquisition of Agilis Biotherapeutics, Inc. (“Agilis”), pursuant to an Agreement and Plan of Merger, dated as of July 19, 2018 (the “Agilis Merger Agreement”), by and among the Company, Agility Merger Sub, Inc., a Delaware corporation and the Company’s wholly owned, indirect subsidiary, Agilis and, solely in its capacity as the representative, agent and attorney-in-fact of the equityholders of Agilis, Shareholder Representative Services LLC, (the “Agilis Merger”). The Company recorded a deferred tax liability in conjunction with the Agilis Merger of $122.0 million in 2018, related to the tax basis difference in the IPRD indefinite-lived intangibles acquired. The Company’s policy is to record a deferred tax liability related to acquired IPR&D which may eventually be realized either upon amortization of the asset when the research is completed, and a product is successfully launched or the write-off of the asset if it is abandoned or unsuccessful. In July 2022, the Company received EMEA approval for a portion of the IPR&D assets, and thus, began the amortization of the intangible.

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In May 2023, the Company announced the discontinuation of its preclinical and early research programs in gene therapy as part of a strategic portfolio prioritization. In conjunction with the announcement, the Company recorded an impairment to its indefinite-lived intangible for IP research and development relating to the Friedreich ataxia and Angelman syndrome gene therapy assets. As a result of the impairment, the Company recorded a deferred tax benefit of $46.9 million during the 2023 tax year.

Leases

The Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at inception. This determination generally depends on whether the arrangement conveys to the Company the right to control the use of an explicitly or implicitly identified fixed asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration. Control of an underlying asset is conveyed to the Company if the Company obtains the rights to direct the use of and to obtain substantially all of the economic benefits from using the underlying asset. The Company has lease agreements which include lease and non-lease components, which the Company accounts for as a single lease component for all leases. Operating and finance leases are classified as right of use ("ROU") assets, short term lease liabilities, and long term lease liabilities. Operating and finance lease ROU assets and lease liabilities are recognized at the commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. ROU assets are amortized and lease liabilities accrete to yield straight-line expense over the term of the lease. Lease payments included in the measurement of the lease liability are comprised of fixed payments.

Variable lease payments associated with the Company’s leases are recognized when the event, activity, or circumstance in the lease agreement on which those payments are assessed occurs. Variable lease payments are presented in the Company’s consolidated statements of operations in the same line item as expense arising from fixed lease payments for operating leases.

Leases with an initial term of 12 months or less are not recorded on the consolidated balance sheet and the Company recognizes lease expense for these leases on a straight-line basis over the lease term. The Company applies this policy to all underlying asset categories.

A lessee is required to discount its unpaid lease payments using the interest rate implicit in the lease or, if that rate cannot be readily determined, its incremental borrowing rate. As most of the Company’s leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company uses its incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at the commencement date in determining the present value of lease payments. The Company gives consideration to its recent debt issuances as well as publicly available data for instruments with similar characteristics when calculating its incremental borrowing rates.

The lease term for all of the Company’s leases includes the non-cancellable period of the lease plus any additional periods covered by either a Company option to extend (or not to terminate) the lease that the Company is reasonably certain to exercise, or an option to extend (or not to terminate) the lease controlled by the lessor. Leasehold improvements are capitalized and depreciated over the lesser of useful life or lease term. See Note 3 Leases for additional information.  

Recently issued accounting standards

In November 2023, the FASB issued ASU 2023-07, Segment Reporting (Topic 280) – Improvements to Reportable Segment Disclosures. This ASU requires that a public entity provide additional segment disclosures on an interim and annual basis. The amendments in this ASU should be applied retrospectively to all prior periods presented in the financial statements, unless impracticable. Upon transition, the segment expense categories and amounts disclosed in the prior periods should be based on the significant segment expense categories identified and disclosed in the period of adoption. The ASU is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023 and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2024. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently planning to adopt this guidance when effective. The Company is assessing the impact of the adoption on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and accompanying footnotes.

In December 2023, the FASB issued ASU 2023-09, Improvements to Income Tax Disclosures. ASU 2023-09 enhances the transparency about income tax information through improvements to income tax disclosures primarily related to the rate reconciliation and income taxes paid information. The guidance is effective for public business entities for annual

19

periods beginning after December 15, 2024. For entities other than public business entities, the amendments are effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2025. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently planning to adopt this guidance when effective. The Company is assessing the impact of the adoption on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and accompanying footnotes. 

3.        Leases

The Company leases office space in South Plainfield, New Jersey for its principal office under two noncancelable operating leases through August 2024, in addition to office and laboratory space in Bridgewater, New Jersey and other locations throughout the United States and office space in various countries for international employees primarily through workspace providers. Effective April 2024, the Company will utilize the Warren Premises, as described below, as its principal office space.

The Company also leases approximately 220,500 square feet of office, manufacturing and laboratory space at a facility located in Hopewell Township, New Jersey pursuant to a Lease Agreement (the “Hopewell Lease”) with Hopewell Campus Owner LLC. The rental term of the Hopewell Lease commenced on July 1, 2020 and has an initial term of fifteen years (the “Hopewell Initial Term”), with two consecutive ten year renewal periods, each at the Company’s option. The aggregate rent for the Hopewell Initial Term will be approximately $111.5 million. The rental rate for the renewal periods will be 95% of the Prevailing Market Rate (as defined in the Hopewell Lease) and determined at the time of the exercise of the renewal. The Company is also responsible for maintaining certain insurance and the payment of proportional taxes, utilities and common area operating expenses. The Hopewell Lease contains customary events of default, representations, warranties and covenants.

In May 2022, the Company entered into a Lease Agreement (the “Warren Lease”) with Warren CC Acquisitions, LLC (the “Warren Landlord”) relating to the lease of two entire buildings comprised of approximately 360,000 square feet of shell condition, modifiable space (the “Warren Premises”) at a facility located in Warren, New Jersey. The rental term of the Warren Lease commenced on June 1, 2022, with an initial term of seventeen years (the “Warren Initial Term”), followed by three consecutive five-year renewal periods at the Company’s option. The aggregate base rent for the Warren Initial Term will be approximately $163.0 million; provided, however, that if the Company is not subject to an Event of Default (as defined in the Warren Lease), the Company will be entitled to a base rent abatement over the first three years of the Warren Initial Term of approximately $18.6 million, reducing the Company’s total base rent obligation to $144.4 million. The rental rate for the renewal periods will be at the Fair Market Rental Value (as defined in the Warren Lease) and determined at the time of the exercise of the renewal. Beginning in the second lease year, the Company is also responsible for the payment of all taxes and operating expenses for the Warren Premises. As a result, the Company recorded an operating lease ROU asset of $28.9 million and an operating lease ROU liability of $28.9 million as of the commencement date.

The Company is entitled to an allowance of approximately $36.2 million to be provided by the Warren Landlord to be used towards such improvements. The Landlord is providing the allowance to cover those assets that are real property improvements, such as structural components, roofs, flooring, etc., whose useful lives are typically longer in nature. The Company evaluated the leasehold improvements under ASC 842 and determined that the Company will be the owner of the improvements, and therefore the $36.2 million allowance and $5.0 million due from the Landlord were treated as lease incentives at the commencement of the lease and included in the calculation of the lease ROU asset and lease ROU liability, effectively reducing both at Commencement Date. In connection with the execution of the Warren Lease, the Company also committed to fund a construction account with $3.6 million to go towards the Company’s improvements of the Warren Premises. Subject to the terms of the Warren Lease, the Company has a right of first offer to purchase the Warren Premises if the Warren Landlord receives a bona fide third party offer to purchase the Warren Premises or the Warren Landlord decides to sell the Warren Premises.

The Company also has a finance lease related to its commercial manufacturing agreement with MassBiologics of the University of Massachusetts Medical School (“MassBio”). As of March 31, 2024, the balance of the finance lease liabilities-current and finance lease liabilities-noncurrent are $1.9 million and $15.6 million, respectively, and are directly related to the Company’s MassBio agreement. As of December 31, 2023, the balance of the finance lease liabilities-current

20

and finance lease liabilities-noncurrent were $3.0 million and $17.2 million, respectively. Additionally, the Company recorded finance lease costs of $0.3 million and $0.4 million related to interest on the lease liability during the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively.

The Company also leases certain vehicles, lab equipment, and office equipment under operating leases. The Company’s leases have remaining operating lease terms ranging from 0.2 years to 15.2 years and certain of the leases include renewal options to extend the lease for up to 15 years. Rent expense was $6.9 million and $7.1 million for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and 2023, respectively.

The components of operating lease expense were as follows:

    

Three Months Ended

    

Three Months Ended

March 31, 2024

March 31, 2023

Operating Lease Cost

  

  

Fixed lease cost

$

5,575

$

5,473

Variable lease cost

 

1,069

 

1,353

Short-term lease cost

 

214

 

303

Total operating lease cost

$

6,858

$

7,129

Total operating lease cost is a component of operating expenses on the consolidated statements of operations.

Supplemental lease term and discount rate information related to leases was as follows as March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023:

    

March 31, 2024

    

December 31, 2023

 

Weighted-average remaining lease terms - operating leases (years)

 

11.66

11.55

Weighted-average discount rate - operating leases

8.75

%

8.69

%

Weighted-average remaining lease terms - finance lease (years)

 

8.76

9.01

Weighted-average discount rate - finance lease

 

7.80

%

7.80

%

Supplemental cash flow information related to leases was as follows as of March 31, 2024 and 2023:

    

Three Months Ended March 31, 

    

2024

    

2023

Cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of lease liabilities:

 

  

  

Operating cash flows from operating leases

$

3,948

$

3,811

Financing cash flows from finance lease

1,490

1,379

Operating cash flows from finance lease

1,510

1,621

Right-of-use assets obtained in exchange for lease obligations:

 

 

  

Operating leases

$

1,723

$

21

Future minimum lease payments under non-cancelable leases as of March 31, 2024 were as follows:

    

Operating Leases

    

Finance Lease

2024 (excludes the three months ended March 31, 2024)

$

14,981

$

2025

 

20,995

 

3,000

2026

 

20,539

 

3,000

2027

 

18,400

 

3,000

2028 and thereafter

 

175,853

 

15,000

Total lease payments

 

250,768

 

24,000

Less: Imputed Interest expense

 

131,359

 

6,478

Total

$

119,409

$

17,522

4.        Fair value of financial instruments and marketable securities

The Company follows the fair value measurement rules, which provideguidance on the use of fair value in accounting and disclosure for assets and liabilities when such accounting and disclosure is called for by other accounting literature. These rules establish a fair value hierarchy for inputs to be used to measure fair value of financial assets and liabilities. This hierarchy prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value into three levels: Level 1 (highest priority), Level 2, and Level 3 (lowest priority).

Level 1—Unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that the Company has the ability to access at the balance sheet date.
Level 2—Inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly. Level 2 inputs include quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active, inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability (i.e., interest rates, yield curves, etc.), and inputs that are derived principally from or corroborated by observable market data by correlation or other means (market corroborated inputs).
Level 3—Inputs are unobservable and reflect the Company’s assumptions as to what market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability. The Company develops these inputs based on the best information available.

Cash equivalents and marketable securities are reflected in the accompanying financial statements at fair value. The carrying amount of receivables and accounts payable and accrued expenses approximates fair value due to the short-term nature of those instruments.

The Company owns common stock in ClearPoint Neuro, Inc. (“ClearPoint”) (formerly MRI Interventions, Inc.), a publicly traded medical device company. The ClearPoint equity investments (collectively, the “ClearPoint Equity Investments”) represent financial instruments, and therefore, are recorded at fair value, which is readily determinable. The ClearPoint Equity Investments are components of prepaids and other current assets on the consolidated balance sheet as of March 31, 2024 and December 31, 2023. The Company classifies the ClearPoint Equity Investments as Level 1 assets within the fair value hierarchy, as the value is based on a quoted market price in an active market, which is not adjusted.

In January 2020, the Company purchased a $10.0 million convertible note from ClearPoint that the Company can convert into ClearPoint shares at a conversion rate of $6.00 per share at any point throughout the term of the loan, which matures five years from the purchase date. The Company determined that the convertible note represents an available for sale debt security and the Company has elected to record it at fair value under ASC 825. The Company classifies its ClearPoint convertible debt security as a Level 2 asset within the fair value hierarchy, as the value is based on inputs other than quoted prices that are observable. The fair value of the ClearPoint convertible debt security is determined at each reporting period by utilizing a Black-Scholes option pricing model, as well as a present value of expected cash flows from the debt security utilizing the risk free rate and the estimated credit spread as of the valuation date as the discount rate. The convertible debt security is included as a component of prepaids and other current assets on the consolidated balance sheet as of March 31,

22

2024 and as a component of deposits and other assets as of December 31, 2023. Other than the ClearPoint Equity Investments and the ClearPoint convertible debt security, no other items included in prepaids and other current assets on the consolidated balance sheets are fair valued.

The Company has investments in mutual funds, including one that is denominated in a foreign currency. All of these are equity investments and are classified as marketable securities on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets. These equity investments are reported at fair value, as they are readily available, and as such are classified as Level 1 assets. Unrealized holding gains and losses for these equity investments are included as components of other expense, net within the consolidated statement of operations. 

The table presented below is a summary of changes in the fair value for the Company’s marketable securities – equity investments, ClearPoint Equity Investments, and ClearPoint convertible debt security for the three months ended March 31, 2024 and March 31, 2023: